# String To Interger (atoi) Problem

## Description

LeetCode Problem 8.

Implement the myAtoi(string s) function, which converts a string to a 32-bit signed integer (similar to C/C++’s atoi function).

The algorithm for myAtoi(string s) is as follows:

- Read in and ignore any leading whitespace.
- Check if the next character (if not already at the end of the string) is ‘-‘ or ‘+’. Read this character in if it is either. This determines if the final result is negative or positive respectively. Assume the result is positive if neither is present.
- Read in next the characters until the next non-digit charcter or the end of the input is reached. The rest of the string is ignored.
- Convert these digits into an integer (i.e. “123” -> 123, “0032” -> 32). If no digits were read, then the integer is 0. Change the sign as necessary (from step 2).
- If the integer is out of the 32-bit signed integer range [-231, 231 - 1], then clamp the integer so that it remains in the range. Specifically, integers less than -231 should be clamped to -231, and integers greater than 231 - 1 should be clamped to 231 - 1.
- Return the integer as the final result.

Note:

- Only the space character ‘ ‘ is considered a whitespace character.
- Do not ignore any characters other than the leading whitespace or the rest of the string after the digits.

Example 1:

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Input: s = "42"
Output: 42
Explanation: The underlined characters are what is read in, the caret is the current reader position.
Step 1: "42" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
^
Step 2: "42" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
^
Step 3: "42" ("42" is read in)
^
The parsed integer is 42.
Since 42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 42.

Example 2:

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Input: s = " -42"
Output: -42
Explanation:
Step 1: " -42" (leading whitespace is read and ignored)
^
Step 2: " -42" ('-' is read, so the result should be negative)
^
Step 3: " -42" ("42" is read in)
^
The parsed integer is -42.
Since -42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is -42.

Example 3:

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Input: s = "4193 with words"
Output: 4193
Explanation:
Step 1: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
^
Step 2: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
^
Step 3: "4193 with words" ("4193" is read in; reading stops because the next character is a non-digit)
^
The parsed integer is 4193.
Since 4193 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 4193.

Example 4:

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Input: s = "words and 987"
Output: 0
Explanation:
Step 1: "words and 987" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
^
Step 2: "words and 987" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
^
Step 3: "words and 987" (reading stops immediately because there is a non-digit 'w')
^
The parsed integer is 0 because no digits were read.
Since 0 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 0.

Example 5:

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Input: s = "-91283472332"
Output: -2147483648
Explanation:
Step 1: "-91283472332" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
^
Step 2: "-91283472332" ('-' is read, so the result should be negative)
^
Step 3: "-91283472332" ("91283472332" is read in)
^
The parsed integer is -91283472332.
Since -91283472332 is less than the lower bound of the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is clamped to -231 = -2147483648.

Constraints:

- 0 <= s.length <= 200
- s consists of English letters (lower-case and upper-case), digits (0-9), ‘ ‘, ‘+’, ‘-‘, and ‘.’.

## Sample C++ Code

This is a C++ solution.

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class Solution {
public:
int myAtoi(string s) {
int len = s.size();
if (len == 0) return 0;
int i = 0;
while (i < len && s[i] == ' ') i ++;
bool neg = false;
if (s[i] == '+') {
neg = false;
i ++;
} else if (s[i] == '-') {
neg = true;
i ++;
}
long long ans = 0;
while (i < len) {
if (s[i] >= '0' && s[i] <= '9') {
ans = ans * 10 + s[i] - '0';
} else {
break;
}
if (ans > INT_MAX)
break;
i ++;
}
if (neg)
ans = - ans;
if (ans > INT_MAX)
ans = INT_MAX;
if (ans < INT_MIN)
ans = INT_MIN;
return ans;
}
};