# UTF-8 Validation Problem

## Description

LeetCode Problem 393.

Given an integer array data representing the data, return whether it is a valid UTF-8 encoding. A character in UTF8 can be from 1 to 4 bytes long, subjected to the following rules:

• For a 1-byte character, the first bit is a 0, followed by its Unicode code.
• For an n-bytes character, the first n bits are all one’s, the n + 1 bit is 0, followed by n - 1 bytes with the most significant 2 bits being 10.

This is how the UTF-8 encoding would work:

``````1
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Char. number range  |        UTF-8 octet sequence
--------------------+---------------------------------------------
0000 0000-0000 007F | 0xxxxxxx
0000 0080-0000 07FF | 110xxxxx 10xxxxxx
0000 0800-0000 FFFF | 1110xxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx
0001 0000-0010 FFFF | 11110xxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx
``````

Note: The input is an array of integers. Only the least significant 8 bits of each integer is used to store the data. This means each integer represents only 1 byte of data.

Example 1:

``````1
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Input: data = [197,130,1]
Output: true
Explanation: data represents the octet sequence: 11000101 10000010 00000001.
It is a valid utf-8 encoding for a 2-bytes character followed by a 1-byte character.
``````

Example 2:

``````1
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Input: data = [235,140,4]
Output: false
Explanation: data represented the octet sequence: 11101011 10001100 00000100.
The first 3 bits are all one's and the 4th bit is 0 means it is a 3-bytes character.
The next byte is a continuation byte which starts with 10 and that's correct.
But the second continuation byte does not start with 10, so it is invalid.
``````

Constraints:

• 1 <= data.length <= 2 * 10^4
• 0 <= data[i] <= 255

## Sample C++ Code

``````1
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class Solution {
public:
bool validUtf8(vector<int>& data) {
int count = 0;
for (auto c : data) {
if (count == 0) {
if ((c >> 5) == 0b110) count = 1;
else if ((c >> 4) == 0b1110) count = 2;
else if ((c >> 3) == 0b11110) count = 3;
else if ((c >> 7)) return false;
} else {
if ((c >> 6) != 0b10) return false;
count--;
}
}
return count == 0;
}
};
``````