# Maximum Frequency Stack Problem

## Description

LeetCode Problem 895.

Design a stack-like data structure to push elements to the stack and pop the most frequent element from the stack.

Implement the FreqStack class:

- FreqStack() constructs an empty frequency stack.
- void push(int val) pushes an integer val onto the top of the stack.
- int pop() removes and returns the most frequent element in the stack.
- If there is a tie for the most frequent element, the element closest to the stack’s top is removed and returned.

Example 1:

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Input
["FreqStack", "push", "push", "push", "push", "push", "push", "pop", "pop", "pop", "pop"]
[[], [5], [7], [5], [7], [4], [5], [], [], [], []]
Output
[null, null, null, null, null, null, null, 5, 7, 5, 4]
Explanation
FreqStack freqStack = new FreqStack();
freqStack.push(5); // The stack is [5]
freqStack.push(7); // The stack is [5,7]
freqStack.push(5); // The stack is [5,7,5]
freqStack.push(7); // The stack is [5,7,5,7]
freqStack.push(4); // The stack is [5,7,5,7,4]
freqStack.push(5); // The stack is [5,7,5,7,4,5]
freqStack.pop(); // return 5, as 5 is the most frequent. The stack becomes [5,7,5,7,4].
freqStack.pop(); // return 7, as 5 and 7 is the most frequent, but 7 is closest to the top. The stack becomes [5,7,5,4].
freqStack.pop(); // return 5, as 5 is the most frequent. The stack becomes [5,7,4].
freqStack.pop(); // return 4, as 4, 5 and 7 is the most frequent, but 4 is closest to the top. The stack becomes [5,7].

Constraints:

- 0 <= val <= 10^9
- At most 2 * 10^4 calls will be made to push and pop.
- It is guaranteed that there will be at least one element in the stack before calling pop.

## Sample C++ Code

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class FreqStack {
public:
unordered_map<int, int> freq;
unordered_map<int, stack<int>> m;
int maxfreq = 0;
void push(int x) {
maxfreq = max(maxfreq, ++freq[x]);
m[freq[x]].push(x);
}
int pop() {
int x = m[maxfreq].top();
m[maxfreq].pop();
if (!m[freq[x]--].size())
maxfreq--;
return x;
}
};
/**
* Your FreqStack object will be instantiated and called as such:
* FreqStack* obj = new FreqStack();
* obj->push(x);
* int param_2 = obj->pop();
*/